Lathe which is equipped with All Geared Headstock is easy to operate as there is no manual slip of Belt from one step to any other. All Geared Lathe have three or more than three shafts mounted within & it is shown in the picture below.
The gears are equipped to obtain different speeds, which can be more than 18 spindle speeds. The middle shaft has got three gears D,E & F as a single unit, thus will rotate at a similar speed. The spline shaft also has three gears mounted as A,B & C on it. The three gears can make to slide with the help of the lever mounted in front of the Headstock as shown below.
This movement enables the Gear A to contact with the Gear D or with other gears. This sliding movement on the either of the shafts with the help of the levers, different gears get in touch with each other & these gears are connected to the main Spindle. So, with the rotation of the Electric Motor Pulley, these gears are also in drive and rotate the spindle, producing different RPM. All Speed Changes are done with the series of levers on the front of the Headstock & are like shifting gears in a Car.
The V-Belt Lathe Machine or famously known as Conventional Lathe Machine in Batala or Cone Pulley Lathe Machine is one of the oldest forms of the Lathe Machines, in which the different speeds are obtained with the help of the belt arranged on the four different steps of the cone pulley. A step Cone Pulley is attached with the Head Stock Spindle.
The Conventional Lathe Machine or Cone Pulley Lathe has four steps as in the above picture (A,B,C,D) & on the other side, there is another pulley which also has four steps (E,F,G,H) which are placed parallel to the Spindle Cone Pulley. Both the Pulleys are connected with the Belt and the V-Belt is connected to the Electric Motor.
The Belt can be arranged between the steps A&H, B&G, C&F & D&F manually, thus the required speed is attained. The Spindle speed will be maximum when the belt is arranged between A & H while the minimum speed will be attained when the belt is arranged between D & E. In this kind of Lathe, Operator has to slip the Belt from one step to another manually.